Kosmos / Космос
After World War II, the First State Watch Factory focused heavily on wristwatch production. This lead to a proliferation of discrete brands in the 1950s, all powered by First Moscow Watch Factory movements. These brands included Antarktida, Kirovskie, Kosmos, Mayak, Moskva, Orbita, Pobeda, Poljus, Rodina, Signal, Sportivnie, Sputnik, Stolichnie, Strela, Sturmanskie, and Vympel.
The Kosmos brand (Космос, meaning "cosmos") was launched in 1963 with a 29-jewel caliber 2416 automatic movement. This was the first Soviet automatic caliber to include a date complication, and was based on the dateless caliber 2415 Orbita which launched the year prior. The 2415 and 2416 movements were highly similar, distinguished only by the addition of a date complication to the Kosmos (and, therefore, a slight increase in thickness: 3.9mm vs 4.5mm). The pointer date on the Kosmos is a particularly unique method of displaying the date; the crescent moon on the end of this date indicator completes the 'cosmos' theme.
In 1964, all discrete marques produced by the First Moscow Watch Factory were consolidated under the Poljot brand, dooming the Kosmos just months after its inception. The factory subsequently manufactured a similar design with Poljot on the dial, but there were several small design changes: a two-piece screw-down caseback stamped in English (rather than the Kosmos' snap-on caseback stamped in Cyrillic), the lack of the factory logo on the automatic winding rotor, and, of course, English printing on the dial.
Caliber: 2416 (29 jewels) Model: 333074 Year: 1963 Notes: "Cosmos", pointer date, automatic, First Moscow Watch Factory